Economics of oil palm seedling production in Edo south senatorial district, Edo State.

Complete chapter One



The study determined the economics of oil palm seedlings production in Edo South Senatorial district, Edo State. The specific objective was to examine the socio-economic characteristics of the oil palm seedlings producers, identify the methods adopted in raising oil palm seedlings in the study area, to estimate this cost and returns in oil palms production and access it’s profitability and viability, identify the factors affecting the level of income generated by producers and the likely problems of oil palm seedlings production. The study covered ninety (90) randomly selected oil palm producers from nine villages in the study area. The results showed that the production of oil palm seedling had a high returns. The cost of selling price per seedling was N272.378, gross margin had N120.621 and Net profit had N75.932. The following was found to be major constraint, inadequate finance, time consumption, irregular supply of fresh fruit bunches, and high transportation cost. Recommendations were made based on the identified problems facing the oil palm seedling producers and it includes provision of planting material as at when due, encouraging farmers to pull their resources together, for farming themselves into cooperative societies.

Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgements iv
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables x
Introduction 1
1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 4
1.3 Objective of the Study 5
Literature Review 6
2.1 Botany 6
2.2 Social and Environmental Impact of palm oil
Seedling in Study area 9
Method adopted in raising the Oil Palm seedlings
Production 10
Oil Palm Production in Nigeria and the World 16
Methodology 19
3.1 Area of Study 19
3.2 Sample Size and Sampling Technique 20
Data Collection 21
Data Analysis 21
Limitation of Study 23
Results and Discussions 24
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 41
5.1 Summary 41
Conclusion 42
Recommendations 42
References 43
Appendix 46

Table 1: Oil palm production in the world 16
Table 2: Oil palm industries in Nigeria 18
Table 3: Selected Areas for the study 20
Table 4: Distribution of Respondents by sex 24
Table 5: Distribution of Respondents by age 25
Table 6: Marital Status of Oil palm producers 26
Table 7: Family size of Respondents 26
Table 8: Educational level of Oil Palm Seedlings producers 27
Table 9: Major occupation of Respondents 28
Table 10: Oil palm seedlings production experience 29
Table 11: Number of Workers employed 30
Table 12: Source of Finance to oil palm seedling producers 31
Table 13: Source of Oil palm seeding production 31
Table 14: Source of labour employed by oil palm seedling
Producers 32
Table 15: Source of Land used by oil palm seedling producers 33
Table 16: Production method adopted by oil palm seedlings
Producers 33
Table 17: Variety of Oil palm seedlings raised 34
Table 18: Production length of Oil palm Seedlings to get 35
Table 19: Number of weeding done before maturity of oil palm seedlings. 36

Table 20: Farm size of oil palm seedlings producers 36
Table 21: Cost and Returns to oil palm seedlings production
per hectare 37
Table 22: Production constraint by Oil palm seedlings producers 38
Table 23: Linear Regression 39

The African Oil Palm, Elaeis guineensi jacq (Jacquin, 1963), is placed in the Arecaceae family which contains about 225 genera with over 2600 species along with coconut and date palms cultivars. There are 3 naturally occurring forms of the oil palm fruit, termed dura, tenera and pisifera. The selection of dura female and pisifera male parents is carried out to obtain tenera offspring that produce large oil yield (Breure et al, 1986, Breure, 2003).
The African oil palm is native to tropical Africa, from Sierra Leone in the West through the Democratic Republic of Congo in the East, it was domesticated in its native range, probably in Nigeria, and moved throughout tropical Africa by humans who practiced shifting agriculture at least 5,000 years ago (Hartley, 1988). European explorers discovered the palm in the late 1400’s, and distributed it throughout the world during the slave trade period (Corner, 1966). In the early 1800’s, the slave trade ended but British began trading with West Africans in Ivory, lumber and palm oil.
The oil palm was introduced to the Americans hundred years ago, where it became naturalized and associated with slave plantations, but did not become an industry of its own until the 1960s (Lereka, 1998). The first plantations were established on Sumatra in 1911, and in 1917 in Malaysia (Raymond, 1961). Oil plantations were established in tropical America and West Africa about this time, and in 2003, palm oil production equaled that of soybean, which had been the number one oil crop for many years.
Elaeis guineeasis is characterized by its vertical trunk and feathery nature of its leaves every year 20 – 25 new leaves called “frond” develop in continuous whorle at the apex of the trunk (Devendra, 1984). The fruit bunches develop between the trunk and the base on the new fronds and the plant can reach 60 – 80ft in height in nature, but is rarely more than 20 or 30ft in cultivation. Although new plantation starts to bear fruit at 3 years, generally, the first commercial crop require between five and six years and continuous to produce for 25 – 30 years, or until the palm grow too high to be harvested. Once a plantation reaches full production, a new inflorescence is produced every 15 days. It weights between 15 and 20kg and can conking up to 1500 individual palm fruit of between 8 and 10 grams each (Chavaliar, 1937). The individual fruits consist of the following four parts, a pericarp, a thin outer skin which upon ripening changes from brown to red or orange, a mesocarp, a large of fibrous material which surrounds the nut, an endocarp or hard inner shell (nut) to protect the seed or kernel and the seed (kernel) (Aighologa, 1995). The female inflorescence contains 200 – 300 fruits, and fruit set is 50 – 70% fruit riped about 5 – 6 months after pollination (Ergo, 1977).
Vegetable and edible oil producer of Nigeria (VEOPAN) claims that, it provided job opportunities for not less than 1.8 million farmer family involved in this production of oil seeds and related crops. Nigeria with a National 1.3 million tones of palm oil and a population. Of over 140 million that means each family produces less than 700kg per year, i.e. an average of less than 2kg/day (Eshalomi, 2008).
Last year, the vegetable oil sub-sector of Manufacturers Association of Nigeria reported that the market has been very unstable because of high cost of input, excessive smuggling of vegetable oil and faking. Recently, the group lamented the shortage of palm oil plantation production which is the major raw material for vegetable oil production because it condemned the Federal Government of Nigeria for signing a contract to supply palm oil to Ghana, whose local demand has not been met (Eshlomi, 2008).
In Edo State, effort has been made to encourage the establishment of oil palm plantation. These has yielded some positive result such as establishment of multinational oil palm plantation companies, whose production has follow Presco Industry Limited 22,000 tonnes/year and an indigenous oil palm farm Nosakeri Farm (Vanguard, 2007).
The production of oil palm seedling is currently the only source of planting materials for oil palm production in Edo State senatorial district. The entire seedling produced in the world is of the tenera type obtained from fertilizing dura tree with pollen form pisifera tree (Griseb, 2007).
The oil palm seedling production is handled directly by organizations such as the Ministry of Agriculture and NIFOR (Wikipedia, 2008).
However, it is observe that a number of business oriented persons are not investing in oil palm seedlings production. What would be responsible for this?
The equation therefore is whether investment in oil palm seedling production is not profitable or there are some other problems that are preventing investment in oil palm seedling production.
It is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the profitability and viability of oil palm seedling production in Edo South Senatorial district.
The broad objective of the study is the economic analysis of oil palm seedlings production in Edo South senatorial district.
The specific objectives are:
To examine the soicio-economic characteristics of the producers of oil palm seedlings in the study area.
To identify the methods adopted in raising the oil palm seedlings in the study area.
To estimate the cost and returns in oil palm seedlings production and access its profitability and viability.
To identify the factors affecting the level of income generated in the production of oil palm seedlings in the study area.
To identify constraints militating/facing against oil palm seedlings production.




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