Effect of selected factors on administrative effectiveness among secondary school principals in Delta State

Complete Chapter One


The study examined the effects of selected factors on the administrative effectiveness of secondary school principals in Delta State. The purpose of the study was to establish whether or not Delta State School principals were effective in school administration, and to examine how the variables of Age, Sex, School Size, Professional qualification, School location, and years of administrative experience affected effectiveness.
The population of the study consisted of all the principals and teachers in Delta State Secondary Schools as at December 2009. Ten out of the twenty-five Local Government Areas were randomly selected and the stratified random sampling technique was used to select 62 secondary schools from the ten (10) selected local government areas. One principal and five randomly selected teachers were used as respondents in each school. This brought the overall sample to 62 principals and 310 teachers.
For the purpose of data collection, two sets of questionnaires were used. The first questionnaire was a “Demographic Inventory (DI)”, while the second one was the “Teachers’ Attitude Perception Inventory (TAPI)”. The Teacher’s Attitude Perception Inventory was validated and its reliability was established at 0.80.
The data obtained was analyzed using such statistical tools as simple percentages, mean scores, t-test for two independent means and the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Based on the analysis, the following were the findings: Delta School Administrators were found to be effective in the administration of secondary schools and there was no significant difference in principals’ administrative effectiveness based on the variables of sex, school size, and location. Administrative experience of principals did not also make any significant difference in the perceived effectiveness of principals.
There was however, a significant difference between professionally and non-professionally qualified principals’ administrative effectiveness.
Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made:
Appointment to the principalship should be given only to teachers with professional qualification in education since they perform better in the administration of schools than non-professionally qualified teachers.
There should be no hard and fast rule concerning promotion to the principalship in terms of years of administrative experience since an experienced principal does not necessarily perform better than a less experienced principal in school administration.

Title page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Operational Hypotheses 8
1.6 Significance of the Study 9
1.7 Scope of the Study 9
1.8 Definition of Terms 10
Introduction 13
Administrative Effectiveness 13
Trait Theory 15
Behavioural Theories 17
Leader and Leadership 21
Review of Previous Studies 23
The Concept of School Administration 26
Conclusion 36
Introduction 37
Population 37
Sample Size 37
Research Instrument 39
Content Validity 41
Reliability 41
Administration of Instrument 42
Data Analysis 42
Introduction 44
Section A: Analysis of Demographic Variables 44
Section B: Statistical Testing and Interpretation 49
Discussion of Results 63
Administrative Effectiveness and Age 63
Administrative Effectiveness and Sex 64
Administrative Effectiveness and school size 65
Administrative Effectiveness and professional qualification 68
Administrative Effectiveness and school location 69
Administrative Effectiveness and Experience 69
5.1 Summary 71
Findings 73
Conclusion 75
Recommendations 75
5.5 Suggestion for Further Research 78
References 79
Appendix 80
Distribution of Principals by Age 45
Distribution of principals by Sex 46
Distribution of principals by Size of schools 46
Distribution of principals by professional qualification 47
Distribution of Principals by school location 48
Distribution of Principals by years of Administrative Experience 49
Test of Effectiveness of Principals using means and percentage 51
Overall level of perceived Effectiveness of Principals 52
ANOVA on Principals’ Administrative Effectiveness based on Age 54
T-Test for difference in Administrative Effectiveness between
Male and Female School principals. 55
ANOVA on the mean Difference in Administrative Effectiveness
among Principals in Large, Medium and Small Sized Schools. 57
T-Test on the mean difference between professionally and non-professionally qualified principals on Administrative Effectiveness. 59
T-test on the mean difference in Administrative Effectiveness
between Principals in urban and rural secondary schools. 60
T-test on the mean difference in Administrative Effectiveness
between Experienced and less Experienced secondary school
principals. 62


Delta State has a large number of secondary schools to cater for the educational needs of eligible school age children. This situation becomes imperative because of the quest to get educated and be prepared for the challenges ahead. Since the creation of the state in the early 90’s, the number of secondary schools have continued to be on the increase, with this increase in the number and size of many secondary schools, the employment of more teachers, changes in school structure, and an enlarged curriculum, the problems of administering the schools would obviously be expected to become more complex. In the setting of most schools, infrastructural facilities were inadequate or even lacking, thus posing special administrative problems.
The expansion of secondary schools meant that teachers were recruited as principals. Some school administrators had less than adequate qualifications and experience since qualified and experience ones were not available or too expensive to be recruited.
Among other constrains found in Delta State’s secondary schools are lack of infrastructural facilities (such as water, inadequacy of classrooms, laboratories, recreational centres and transportation). Inadequate transportation facilities have resulted in truancy and late attendance on the part of the pupils.
The lack of concerted community effort in the educational process, indifference on the part of the parents in their children’s education particularly at the primary level, over-crowed classrooms, shortage of infrastructural materials (textbooks, audio-visual equipment, film and slides), isolated school environment, and the fact that some homes may be too poor to provide reinforcement for the child have all added to the complexity of school administration.
This list does not include the variety of stresses and conflicts accompanying social and psychological conflicts resulting from ethnic and personality differences in the school setting. These limiting factors and constrains tend to make the administrative situation in the state’s secondary schools less than favourable because they place considerable limits on the degree to which school administrators can be effective.
The foregoing is a sketch of the context in which Principals in Delta State are expected to carry out the central task of administration which is the enhancement of teaching and learning. To enhance teaching and learning, the school administrator is required to perform three vital development of goals and policies, to establish and coordinate educational organizations concerned with planning and implementing appropriate programmes, and to procure and manage resources necessary to support the educational system and its planned programme.
Effectiveness in this situation will very much depend on the principals’ knowledge, expertise, and capability and the ability to improvise solutions to problems (Jiboyewa, 1999).
Researches in administrative effectiveness have classified school administrators as either effective or ineffective in carrying out their functions. For instance, Nwankwo noted that the extent to which there is mutuality between the principal’s control behaviour and the students’ acceptance of the behaviour would determine the harmony and low level of student conflict in the school. He also noted that some schools experience more conflicts than others and this attributed among other things to the principals’ effectiveness or ineffectiveness. Mfon also states in his study of the attributes of Delta State Principals to human right laws in the control of student conduct, that school control takes different forms in different schools and among different school heads.
Also writing on differential administrative effectiveness among secondary school administrators in Delta State, Onyenenue noted that discipline in school was the offspring of effective administration while indiscipline was caused by absence of commitment on the part of some principals.
These are instances of effectiveness and ineffectiveness in Delta State secondary schools and are also pointers to the fact that differences in performance exist among the state’s school administrators.

There are apparently several complexities which limit the degree to which school principals in Delta State secondary schools can be effective with large and ever increasing student enrolment for instance, the principals have considerable responsibilities catering for the different inadequacies that come with increased school size. They are also faced with inadequate and sometimes non-availability of infrastructural facilities that should help smoothen the teaching/learning process. Increased enrolment has also meant the employment of less qualified and experienced teachers as principals to man the school system. Nwankwo and Eyike have observed that in the process of managing these constrains, some school principals are more effective than others. The present study is designed to find out if demographic and organizational variables such as age, sex, qualification, school size, school location, and years of experience interact to bring about differences in effectiveness between school administrators in the process of managing educational institutions. Specifically, the following questions were asked to direct the study:

Principals being the major agents in the promotion of school effectiveness are the pillars of the educational system, hence the maintenance of quality and standards in education depends on the extent to which they effectively carry out their administrative responsibilities. It is therefore necessary for them to be aware of some of the variables that can positively or negatively affect their performance in the process of carrying out their administrative functions. This study, therefore, has two main purposes, first to examine the effects of selected variables on the administrative effectiveness of school principals, and secondly, to examine the level of effectiveness of Delta State secondary school principals.

1. How effective are Delta State school administrators?
2. Does age of the Administrators affect their effectiveness as school principals?
3. Is there any difference in the performance of male and female school principals regarding school administration.
4. To what extent does school size affects the principals’ administrative effectiveness?
5. Does professional qualification affect principals’ administrative effectiveness.
6. Does the location of a school affect the principals’ administrative effectiveness?
7. Do years of experience affect the administrative effectiveness of school principals?

HO1: There is no significant difference in administrative effectiveness among principals in the different age groups.
HO2: There is no significant difference in administrative effectiveness between male and female principals.
HO3: There is no significant difference in administrative effectiveness among principals in large, medium and small schools.
HO4: There is no significant difference in administrative effectiveness between professionally and non-professionally qualified principals.
HO5: There is no significant difference in administrative effectiveness between principals in urban and those in rural schools.
HO6: There is no significant difference in administrative effectiveness between experienced and less experienced principals.

It is expected that the findings of this study would provide a better knowledge for principals on some of the variables that act as obstacles to the effective performance of their duties; provide the school administrator with an awareness of the variables that could affect their administration and enable them to take these variables into cognizance in their daily administrative routines.
Furthermore, the State Board of Education officials as well as Ministry of Education officials through the findings of this study would be able to plan more objectively how to develop the administrative personnel in the secondary schools through organizing workshops and seminars in order to improve principals’ administrative skills.

This study will examine only principals’ effectiveness in five administrative task areas, viz: instructional programme, staff personnel administration, student personnel administration, financial and physical resources, and school/community relationship.
The study will be delimited to secondary schools in Delta State and respondents will comprise principals and teachers from selected secondary school.

Effectiveness: For the purpose of this study, the five administrative task domains – instructional programme, staff personnel administration, student personnel administration, financial and physical resources, and school/community relationship would be used to measure principals’ effectiveness. Effectiveness is therefore the principals’ ability to provide leadership in the five administrative task domains.
Experienced Principal: A teacher who has served as a principal for at least five years. Because such a principal must have seen students’ progress from form one to five, with just a year to complete their programme.
Urban Areas: These consist of state and local government headquarters. The 25 local government headquarters in including Asaba fall into this group.
Rural Areas: All towns outside the local government headquarters.
Large School: A school with a population of over 1,000 students.
Medium sized school: A school with a population of 600 – 1000 students.
Small School: A school with a population of less than 600 students.
Professionally Qualified Principal: For the purpose of this research study, a secondary school principal with at least a Bachelor of Education degree Certificate or a Post-graduate Diploma in Education is regarded as a professionally qualified principal.
Non-Professionally Qualified Principal: A secondary school principal without the Bachelor of Education degree certificate or the Post-graduate Diploma in Education certificate is regarded as a non-professionally qualified principal.

To get the Full and Complete Project material, Contact Solomon on 09024640145 or send an email to mzresearchproject@gmail.com. Complete Project Material costs N3,000 naira only.