Influence of teachers’ characteristics on students’ achievement in Chemistry in senior secondary schools in Edo central senatorial district

Complete Chapter One


The study assessed teacher’s characteristics on student’s achievement in senior secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial district. Teacher’s characteristics were based on professional qualification, experience and quality of teaching on students’ academic achievement.
The research design used was the survey research design. 500 SS2 chemistry students and all the chemistry teachers were randomly sampled from 25 senior secondary schools in the area of study. Questionnaire, standardized objective test and teacher’s interview were instrument used to collect data.
Three research questions and three hypotheses formulated in this study were tested and analyzed using t-test of independent samples. The results of the data analysis showed that:
There is no significant difference in achievement in chemistry between student taught by professional teachers and students taught by non-professional teachers.
Experienced teachers are superior to the inexperienced teachers in the course of relevance of test construction skills, evaluation of knowledge of student understanding etc.
Teacher’s quality of teaching greatly influences students’ achievement in chemistry.
Recommendations and areas for further study were also given.

Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract vi
Background to Study 1
Statement of Problem 6
Research Questions 8
Hypotheses 8
Purpose of Study 9
Significant of the Study 10
Delimitation of the Study 11
Limitation of the Study 12
Operational Definition of Terms 13
Introduction 15
Professional Qualification 15
Teacher’s experience 22
Quality of Teaching 29
Method of Instruction 35
Caring Teacher 48
Summary 53
Introduction 56
Research Design 57
Population 57
Sample/Sampling Techniques 57
Instrument 58
Validation of Instrument 59
Reliability of Instrument 60
Method of Data Collection 60
Statistical Method for Data Analysis 61
Introduction 62
Data Analysis 62
Hypothesis 1 62
Hypothesis 2 64
Hypothesis 3 65
Discussion of Results 67
Summary 73
Conclusion 75
Recommendations 76
References 78
Appendix I 85
Appendix II 88
Appendix III 98
Appendix IV 100


Background to Study
Science is very important in the modern technology. Like every other things, science has brought a lot of improvement to the life and property of all inhabitants of the earth. It must be emphatically said that the survival of man and all that man has depends heavily on is science. It is a useful tool which is capable of keeping and sustaining the world.
In recognizing this emphasis in science education has been on the increase. The fact has been evident in the high priority accorded to the teaching and learning of science subjects both at primary and secondary school levels. It’s importance led to the introduction of Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN), comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) and Mathematical Association of Nigeria (MAN) to foster and increase science education in Nigeria.
Federal, State and Local governments have over the years done quite much to encourage the teaching and learning of science. This is demonstrated in various ways. Such as government budgetary votes, scholarship grants, quiz and other forms of science competition, organization of science seminar workshops and symposia, establishment of University of Science and Technology in various parts of the country and even admission policies into institutions of higher learning, yet achievement in science education especially in chemistry, is low.
Many educationists, scientists have attributed the poor achievement in science education especially chemistry to; lack of professional chemistry teachers, lack of instructional materials, poor methods of instruction, quality of teaching and teacher’s experience among others. These are what constitute teacher’s characteristics.
In Nigeria, there has been live and cry by members of the public over what is regarded as falling standards in education. One notices that such lives and cries come immediately after the release of the yearly senior school certificate examination results. It stands to reason therefore that the notion of the falling standard of education could not be anything else other than the inability on the part of secondary school students to pass the school certificate examination (Oteze, 2009).
Arzi, White and Fensham (1987) identified that one of the causes of poor performance in science education (chemistry) is poor teaching methods employed by teachers. He maintained that teaching means learning with full meaning but oriented towards memorization and recall of facts.
Furthermore Urevbu (1984) identified that lack of instructional materials is also a bane. He explained that due to lack of instructional materials, teachers only carry out experiments while students watch and take notes. Some teachers place students in large group, which does not give room for real participation by all. Thus, often leads to a situation where students abandon the scientific way of thinking in favour of the learning of definitions and standard procedures. He concluded that there is a belief that real science can be found only in the laboratory amidst fancy and expensive equipment and not among the ordinary everyday things of life.
He also stated that lack of qualified teachers militates against high performance of students in sciences especially in chemistry, he noted poor staffing, not taking into consideration on the compatibility of the teacher with the learner as well as teaching the subject they are not at home with and not giving the teacher training opportunities within and outside the country. Teaching depends on education who deeply understands subject matter and how to teach in ways that motivate children and help them learn, this is known as pedagogical content knowledge.
Acquisition of pedagogical content knowledge is within the limits of teachers’ preparatory programmes which in Nigeria includes Colleges of Education and Universities at the respective science departments leading to the award of NCE and B.Sc. (Ed) degrees. (These preparatory programmes admit and graduate thousands of trained teachers annually yet the poor performance of science subjects especially chemistry persist.
Today, the knowledge possessed by chemistry teachers is not quite clear. Some have pedagogical skills as a result of their teacher preparatory programmes, while others had never offered a course in pedagogy. Thus, this study takes an in-depth analysis of assessing teacher’s characteristics on student’s academic achievement in chemistry.

Statement of Problem
There has been a public outcry on the poor standard of educational system resulting in the production of poor quality output that are neither self reliant nor able to contribute effectively in the world of work (Ochuba and Ifedili, 2008).
The general impression that Nigerian educational system is whirling out of control is very embarrassing to many concerned citizens. There is a general feeling that the high rate of students’ poor performance in chemistry can be attributed to teacher’s characteristics in terms of; inadequacy of chemistry teachers, professional qualification, method of instruction, quality of teaching and experience. Nigerian needs to meet global standard in delivery education in Nigeria.
It is a common knowledge that there are not enough qualified chemistry teachers in the secondary schools, Edo State in general, Edo Central Senatorial district in particular. Many chemistry teachers in the secondary schools are not professional teachers. Could this be the reason for poor achievement in chemistry? The teacher is the hub of the educational system because the school cannot be better than its teachers. The training of the young minds is not a thing to toy with; this is why it is wrong to assume that teaching is what anybody can do if he knows his subject.
The study therefore, will assess the effect of teacher’s characteristics on students’ achievement in terms of; qualification of chemistry teachers, experience, method of instruction, quality of teaching, attitude of caring, the number of chemistry teacher available and the level of students’ performance at senior secondary schools.

Research Questions
For the purpose of this study, three (3) research questions were raised:
Is there any difference in achievement in chemistry between students taught by professional teachers and students taught by non-professional teachers?
Is there any difference in achievement in chemistry between students taught by experience teachers and students taught by inexperience teachers?
Is there any relationship between students’ achievement in chemistry and the teacher’s quality of teaching?

The following hypotheses were tested:
There is no significant difference in achievement in chemistry between students taught by professional teachers and students taught by non-professional teachers.
There is no significant difference in achievement in chemistry between students taught by experience teachers and students taught by inexperience teachers.
There is no significant relationship between students’ achievement in chemistry and the teacher’s quality of teaching.

Purpose of Study
This study was undertaken for the purpose of assessing teacher’s characteristics in terms of:
Teachers’ professional qualification.
Methods of instruction.
Teaching experience.
Quality of Teaching.
Teachers’ instructional knowledge
Teachers’ representational knowledge.
Teachers’ subject matter knowledge.
Teachers’ evaluation of knowledge of student understanding.
All these affect student’s achievement in senior secondary school chemistry in Edo Senatorial district.

Significant of the Study
This project work is necessitated by the low level of achievement of chemistry students in external examination in Nigeria. This has led to lack of trained personnel in science oriented careers as well as a fall in the understanding of contemporary technology.
The result of this research work would provide useful information for the basic steps needed to construct a valid and reliable test items.
This investigative study would be useful to the curriculum developers who will know the area of emphasis for better results in the future.
The finding of this research work would also be useful to teachers, as it would provide opportunity to reflect on their classroom teaching. Furthermore, it would provide information for improving the pedagogy content knowledge of pre-service science teachers.
Lastly, this project work is beneficial to the academicians since data and materials available were based on empirical studies.

Delimitation of the Study
The study covers twenty-five (25) senior secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial District. Simple random sampling technique was used to select five (5) senior secondary schools in each Local Government Area of the five (5) Local government Areas in Edo Central Senatorial District. These schools were selected based on the following, viz:
State public secondary schools.
Private secondary schools.
Christian secondary schools.
These schools chosen are good representation of single and mixed schools.

Limitation of the Study
Limiting factors or constraints is a common feature to any venture in which a project of this kind is not excluded.
It was not possible to consider a large sample because of time. Finally, some teachers were rather reluctant to give necessary information regarding their personal and academic data.

Operational Definition of Terms
Assessment: This is the act of judging or forming an opinion about written and oral examination.
Teacher’s characteristics: This is a typical feature or quality of a teacher.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge: In this work, it is used as the teacher knowledge of the subject matter (content) and the general knowledge of the instructional methods or teaching methods in which teacher use to effect learning in the classroom.
Instructional Knowledge: It deals with teachers’ teaching strategies and the extend it explains and cover the content.
Subject Matter Knowledge: It refers to the extent to which the teacher explains and demonstrates a comprehension of purposes and ideas within the discipline.
Representational Knowledge: It deals with the extent the teacher can use diagrams, graph stories and analogies to explain scientific ideas concept and principles.
Technology: This is the systematic application of scientific knowledge or thoughts to practical tasks, in industry aimed at producing goods and services for the benefit of mankind.

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