Due to the fact that the scientific method is what sets scientific research apart from other types of inquiry and scientific knowledge from other types of information, we put a premium on the process of research.
The scientific method is one approach to learning about the world, but it is by no means the only one. There are three different forms of knowledge in human society (Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias 1996).
People’s social or political standing makes them useful as information sources. These people may be heads of state, religious leaders, kings, or so-called “experts” like well-known scientists.
Meaningful in a mystical sense
The search for information leads people to the paranormal.
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Knowledge, according to the rationalist school of thought, may be gleaned from the canons of logic alone, apart from any consideration of the actual world.
Unlike the aforementioned approaches, scientific understanding of the world relies on direct observation. Theorizing is how we put what we see into words and make predictions about the world. Methodology refers to the processes through which data is collected, analyzed, and then utilized to generate new insights.
Methodologies for doing research are the frameworks within which new information may be accumulated and disseminated. They make it possible to assess the reliability of research and, by extension, knowledge assertions. These are some of the standards used to assess studies in the scientific community: (Bryman 2008).
Can the study be repeated? That is, can we trust the results obtained using these measurements. Will I receive the same findings if I redo the measurements under the same conditions?
The Ability to Repeat Something
It means that the methods (methodology) used in the study are described in enough depth for another researcher to replicate the results.
The validity of a study’s findings is at stake. Several concerns have been voiced in this discussion, like as
First, how well does the chosen metric represent the phenomenon under study? Second, how strong is the correlation between the two variables? Thirdly, how sure are we that our results can be generalized outside of the study setting?
The trustworthiness criterion has been proposed as a way to guarantee the honesty of results in certain cases, such as when a study doesn’t try to generalize its statistical findings outside its original setting.
Perceived rigor in technique, or the belief that the researcher has adhered to standard methods to the maximum extent possible to guarantee that the findings obtained are robust, is used to evaluate all the aforementioned characteristics. In order for scientists to put their faith in a study’s findings, the researchers must engage in “disciplined inquiry” to ensure that their data, justifications, and reasoning hold up to scrutiny (Punch 1998).